The climate and soil conditions of the botanic garden are rather adverse. The annual precipitation is somewhat more than 500 mm, characteristic to the dry areas of the Great Hungarian Plains, with rather extreme climate, caracterized by long summer-droughts, and the maximum temperature approaches 40 °C in extreme cases, while the winter minimum can drop even to -30 °C. There is a scattered snow cover, early and late frosts and, in the low-lying areas of the garden, fogs are frequent. The soil of the garden is calcareous windblown sand, bound sand and clay.
The natural vegetation in the closer environs of the botanic garden reflects well these extreme conditions, as on the natural sandy lands at the end of the garden leather grasses are fluttering in the wind and the nearby hills are covered with oakwood of dry loess-land. A fresh dash of colour is represented only by the narrow strips of riverside forests along the streams and by the bogs to be still found here and there the remains of which can be observed also along the garden lake and stream in the huge specimens of the Hungarian ash (Fraxinus angustifolia ssp. pannonica) and the robur (Quercus robur).
The tree-vegetation of the garden also provides a home for a rich fauna, 53 bird species nest in this area. The extreme factors preclude growing several plants well-known from botanic gardens of more favourable climate (e.g. Rhododendrons, Azaleas), and the plant growth of the garden can be maintained only by regular careful watering. At the same time the visitor can see almost a thousand characteristic species of the Hungarian flora here, not to mention the interesting plants of the Russian steppes, Central-Asian mountains or those of the Rocky Mountains in America, and the trees and shrubs from the Far East.